Five Emerging Technology Trends in Satellite Spectrum Monitoring
The development of a satellite spectrum monitoring system is crucial to monitor the usage of the available spectrum carefully, as it is already a finite resource, and all radio services, ranging from commercial radio and television to military radar, are accommodated within this spectrum.
The demand for accessing multiple segments of the spectrum is increasing as new and immersive technologies allow a variety of applications to allow the use of a broader range of frequency bands.
Spectrum monitoring plays a crucial role in commercial, regulatory, and military applications. The spectral correlation function signal processing technique is used in cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) to detect low power receiving signals that are often below the noise floor of the spectrum monitor.
The increasing growth in small satellite manufacturing with the predicted launch of satellite constellations of communication is a major driving factor for various end users such as defense, government, and commercial that are contributing to the increasing spectrum demand.
According to the BIS Research report, the global satellite spectrum monitoring market is estimated to reach $5.14 billion by 2031 from $2.55 billion in 2021, growing at a CAGR of 7.24% during the forecast period.
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Here are five technological trends that are driving the changing demand for satellite spectrum monitoring, along with the examination of each technology that impacts the demand for specific frequency bands offering considerations for regulators based on different international experiences.
5G Spectrum Needs
Several benefits are offered over previous generations of mobile technologies through the fifth generation (5G) spectrum, including faster speed, lower latency, and higher capacity. The advancement of 5G technology is based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) usage to modulate the transmission of digital signals of multiple bandwidths.
Data rates through 5G networks follow a significant increase over 4G speed of around 100Mbps and can reach up to 20 Gbps.
The greater bandwidth of 5G networks allows more users to connect through a strong and reliable signal.
The 5G network eliminates lag or delays that users may face while accessing an online application with a lower latency of 1ms.
Many countries are globally identifying and allocating the 5G spectrum while auctioning multiple bands at once, including high, mid, and low-range frequencies. There is more spectrum available in mm-wave bands because of less incumbent use to allow wider bandwidths and support higher throughputs.
The 5G network implementation can create additional demand for frequency bands below 6 GHz, which are most already assigned for use by several incumbent services.
HAPS to Support Expanded Connectivity
A high-altitude platform station (HAPS) is a growing technology seeking to expand access to wireless connectivity. This consists of radio stations located in the stratosphere between 20–50 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. The application of HAPS supports other terrestrial technologies having the potential to expand connection and telecommunications services, mostly in rural and remote areas.
HAPS can be a go-to tool that can help in extending the reach of existing terrestrial networks and provide higher quality service to already connected areas as well as connectivity during emergency situations.
HAPS applications can enable frequency bands either authorized directly to the providers or to an existing partner telecommunications operator, such as a mobile network operator (MNO).
Taking a global responsive consideration, Kenya authorized the use of HAPS to support connectivity in the country in March 2020.
Growth of NGSO Satellite Networks
Non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) satellite systems provide connectivity in areas that are not currently reached by terrestrial telecommunications infrastructure. Thousands of satellites are being comprised, having the potential to increase the use of satellite services in remote and underserved areas. NGSO satellite systems contemplate spectrum management challenges, mitigating the risk of harmful interference by balancing the use of the different frequency bands and allowing geostationary orbit (GSO) and NGSO satellite systems to operate simultaneously.
The technological evolution over the years has allowed humans to fulfill their expanding needs. Satellite navigation systems are one such crucial development providing autonomous geo-spatial navigation systems.
Advancing the Use of IoT Technology
Increased connectivity and capacity introduced by spectrum monitoring technologies are highly fostering the development of growing connected devices as part of the internet of things (IoT) ecosystem.
The spectrum requirements of the growing IoT landscape in various segments depend upon the use-case specificity.
Many IoT-connected devices, such as the connected thermostat, are used for consumer applications to monitor and control the temperature of their homes while they are away.
Smart cities around the world are implementing IoT in various applications. For instance, Los Angeles has implemented IoT technology by using road-surface sensors and closed-circuit television cameras for monitoring and controlling traffic flow across the city.
Evolution of Wi-Fi
Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology plays a crucial role in the connectivity ecosystem by transmitting information to and from mobile terminals, sensors, and other connected devices that are operated in an unlicensed spectrum. This technology can transmit information in a relatively wide range of frequencies.
Wi-Fi technology has been in use for a long time, and meanwhile, the latest versions of the technology have allowed many local area networks to operate in numerous advancing frequencies.
A satellite spectrum monitoring system is a part of the ground station, which helps to continuously monitor the spectrum of each satellite uplink or downlink, identify the harmful interference, and help identify the source location of interference that is causing degradation of the satellite service performance. The core of the satellite launch and propulsion system might include various growth perspectives in the coming years.
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